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Self-Sustainable Upper Dolpa Project

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फलफूल र तरकारीमा निर्भरता

सञ्जय गजुरेल, पिएचडी 

Published @NagarikNews on June 09, 2019

कालीमाटी फलफूल तथा तरकारी बजार विकास समितिको सन् २०१७÷१८ को तथ्यांकअनुसार त्यहाँ बिक्री हुने तरकारी र खाद्यको ४४.६४ प्रतिशत भारतबाट आयात हुन्छ भने चीनबाट ०.५८ प्रतिशत आयात हुन्छ। ठूलो संख्यामा युवाहरूको प्रवासन, भूमि विभाजन र भौगोलिक जटिलताका बाबजुत सरकारको सानो प्रयासबाट फलफूल र तरकारीको यो वैदेशिक निर्भरता हटाउन सकिन्छ। बिस्तारै यसको तरंगले कृषिप्रधान देशका रूपमा नेपालले खाद्यान्नमा आत्मनिर्भरता ल्याउन सक्छ।

अहिलेको तत्कालीन समस्या भनेको स्थानीय किसानहरूको तरकारी र फलफूल उचित मूल्यमा किनिदिने बजार नहुनु हो। कालिमाटी र बल्खु जस्ता तरकारी बजारमा दलाल  र माफियाको बिगबिगी सुनिन्छ तर सरकारले तिनीहरूलाई कानुनी ढाँचामा ल्याएर उनीहरूको उचित प्रयोग गर्न सकेको छैन। सरकारले ठाउँठाउँमा सरकारी भूमिमा स्थानीय बजार (हाट बजार) को व्यवस्था गर्न सके त्यो समस्या आफँै पनि कम भएर जान्छ। उपभोग हुन नसकेर फालिनुपर्ने अवस्थामा रहेका तरकारी र फलफूलका लागि सरकारले न्यून रकममा गोदाम र चिसो पार्ने सुविधा उपलब्ध गराउन सके निकै राहत मिल्न सक्छ। केही अनलाइन सस्था, जस्तै– ग्रिन ग्रोथ यसमा लागिपरेका देखिन्छन्। कालीमाटी फलफूल तथा तरकारी बजार विकास समितिले पनि प्रत्येक दिनको थोक मूल्य विवरण आफ्नो वेबपेजमा प्रकशित गर्ने गरेको छ।
कृषि विभाग २०१५ को डायरीअनुसार त्यो वर्ष ३०९१ हेक्टर जमिनमा उब्जाउ भएको थियो भने १०३० हेक्टर जमिन बाँझो रहेको थियो। छोडिएका र बाँझो बसेका त्यस्ता

जमिन सरकारले ठेक्का लिएर सहुलियत दरमा किसानलाई उपलब्ध गराउनुपर्छ र आफ्नो निर्देशनमा उनीहरूलाई आधुनिक खेतीतिर अग्रसर गर्नुपर्छ। ऊर्वर भूमिलाई भूमि माफियाको हातमा जानबाट बचाउन सरकारले राम्रो नीति पनि बनाउनुपर्छ। यसले भूमिरहित वा ऊर्वरा भूमि नभएका गरिबहरूलाई कृषिमा भाग लिने अवसर दिनेमात्र हैन, यसबाट मुख्यतः सामन्तवाद प्रणालीका कारणले राम्रा र ऊर्वर भूमि ओगटेका भूमि मालिकहरू पनि लाभान्वित हुन सक्छन्। सरकारले फसल र पशु बीमाको व्यवस्था गरी किसानहरूको संरक्षणमा पनि ध्यान पु¥याउनुपर्छ। इन्क्रिज्ड फलो ल्यान्ड एन्ड फुड थ्रेट्सको प्रतिवेदनमा यस्ता केही कुरा आकडासहित उल्लेख छन्।
जब युवाहरूलाई कृषिबाट पनि राम्रो जीविका चलाउन सकिन्छ भन्ने विश्वास हुन्छ, विदेशको कठोर वातावरणमा ज्यानकै बाजी लगाउनुपर्ने काम छाडेर उनीहरू आफ्नै देश फर्कन्छन्। नेपाल जस्तै अरु विकासोन्मुख क्युबा, ताइवान, भियतनाम, मलेसिया आदि देशले कृषि अर्थतन्त्रलाई साना÷ठूला, विविध, सहकारी र समूह कृषिलाई बढुवा गरी मजबुत बनाइ यसको नमुना दिइसकेका छन्।अफसोच, देशमासरकारले ऊर्वर जग्गामा कित्ता गर्न नपाउने निर्देशन दिँदा पनि यो प्रभावकारी हुन सकेको छैन। ऊर्वर जग्गा बाँझो राखे जरिवाना तिर्नुपर्ने दफानै फितलोदेखिन्छ।

व्यावसायिक कृषि तथा व्यापार आयोजना, सिडिपी र क्रप एन्ड लाइभस्टक इन्सुरेन्स प्रोग्रामलगायत नेपाल सरकारले कृषिमा दिएको अनुदान र सहयोगहरू असफल देखिएका अवस्थामा नेपाल सरकारको कृषिमा प्रत्यक्ष संलग्नता हुनु नितान्त आवश्यक देखिन्छ। नेपालका किसानलाई राष्ट्रिय÷अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय गैरसरकारी संस्थामार्फत उपलब्ध हुने कृषिको सैद्धान्तिक शिक्षाभन्दा व्यावहारिक स्थल तालिम आवश्यक छ। more …

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Setting Up a New Cluster

Setting Up a New Cluster

 

This document is an attempt to provide you basic idea to start a new cluster. The document is based on RHEL (Red Hat Enterprise Linux) distribution and Dell servers (R430: server and compute nodes, R730 GPU nodes (P100), and R730 (SMP Nodes). Accordingly, there are three partitions batch, gpu, and smp created using SLURM. Since there are different generations of compute nodes and GPU nodes, we have also grouped them using “feature” option in SLURM. Check HPC Resource View Portal that gives you hybrid cluster structure. The internal high-bandwidth, low latency private network (“interconnect”) is currently provided by 100/25/10 Gbps Mellanox/Arista Ethernet switches.

General Reference – OpenHPC: https://openhpc.community/

CWRU HPC Overview:

Compute Nodes: CPU, GPU, Hadoop, DTN (Globus, Aspera, GDC)

Login Nodes: SSH/SFTP, Visualization, Hadoop Edge

Head Nodes: SLURM, XCat, LDAP, MySQL, DHCP, DNS, Ansible, Cloudera/Hadoop

Storage: Panasas, ZFS, Qumulo

Network: HPC, ILO/IPMI

Network & System Management & Monitoring: SolarWinds

Important Notes

  • We prefer servers – rack-mountable, C13-C14 power connections, 25GbE card and 1GbE connection, and IPMI-enabled (management)
  • Reserve the block of IP addresses for interfaces
  • The instructions can be slightly changed over time but the idea will remain the same

  • Install OS in a management Node using kickstart file, and PXE boot all other servers using xCAT installed in the management node.
  • Maintain the servers information in HPC Inventory to look up in the future

Pre-requisites

  • Set up the servers and switches in the racks.

  • Keep all head nodes in one rack with KVM Console (see Appendix A: Remote Management section for details); all head nodes (see Appendix B: Head Nodes) connecting to a KVM switch, and a long roving cable for connecting one compute node at a time.

  • Get the static IP for all the servers – head nodes as well as compute nodes.

 

Head Nodes & Compute Nodes – BIOS and DRAC configuration

Here is the procedure for setting up the servers.

  1. Rack the node and connect

    1. 1GE yellow cable to LOM1 (usually em0)

    2. the 10GbE twinax cable OR 100/25GbE breakout cables that comes with the order to the 10/25GbE slot (usually p2p1)

    3. The outer facing interface (1G/10G) that connects to the internet is also required (for head nodes only; not for compute nodes)

  2. HPC group will install the nodes physically, as well as set up the BIOS/DRAC.

  3. Enter the BIOS setup:

    1. Change the BIOS startup order to: PXE, Hard Drive.

    2. Disable the Logical Processor (the hyperthreading)

    3. Note down the ethernet MACs, noting down the em0 (the provisioning mac) in the HPC Inventory page <- if forgotten, this info is available in the idrac: Hardware -> Network devices -> Embedded NIC1

    4. In the DRAC menu:

      • choose Non dedicated with LOM1 (we want the shared interface to reduce the number of cables)

      • enter the appropriate DRAC IP/255.255.240.0 (They should be pre-assigned)

      • Enable IPMI over LAN (necessary; else rpower shows ERROR timeout though DRAC access from portal is okay)

      • change the user password to: root and DRAC pw.

    5. Save and Exit (Node will reboot)

Test whether you can access the node via DRAC (see Appendix C: DRAC Access)

Operating System (OS) Installation

We will Install RHEL OS in a management head node first as it is the provisioning server and provide kickstart files for installing OS in all the compute nodes via network using PXE Boot through xCAT. You can either install OS via media devices or network (if you have extra server designated for this in your IT department). more …

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Open Science Framework (OSF)

OSF

The Open Science Framework (OSF) [1] [2] is a tool that promotes open, centralized workflows by enabling capture of different aspects and products of the research lifecycle, including developing a research idea, designing a study, storing and analyzing collected data, and writing and publishing reports or papers. It is developed and maintained by the Center for Open Science (COS), a nonprofit organization founded in 2013 that conducts research into scientific practice, builds and supports scientific research communities, and develops research tools and infrastructure to enable managing and archiving research. As an organization, the COS encourages openness, integrity, and reproducibility in research across scientific disciplines. The OSF supports a variety of tools and services to assist in the research process. This review focuses primarily on the core functionality of the OSF, with brief descriptions of some of the other existing tools and services. more …
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Singularity HPC Container Solution

Singularity

Singularity [1] enables users to have full control of their environment. This means that a non-privileged user can “swap out” the operating system on the host for one they control. So if the host system is running RHEL7 but your application runs in Ubuntu, you can create an Ubuntu image, install your applications into that image, copy the image to another host, and run your application on that host in it’s native Ubuntu environment!

Digital Signal Processing (DSP)

Digital Signal Processing

The signals that we are trying to use may contain noises ( unwanted signals) and hence they need to be processed such as filtering the noises using the filters. Also, the information they contain can be displayed, analyzed, or converted to another type of signal. Digital Signal Processing (DSP) incorporates all these methods of processing the signals so as to retrieve the desired information from the signal.

Signal and Systems

Signals

Signal such as sound, heartbeat, heat, earthquake, current, and more are information that get transmitted from one place to another. Systems process those signals to modify or transform them. Signal is fed into the system as time dependent input stream (x(t)) which results in output y(t) which is the response of the system. The mathematical modeling of signals and systems help in the design and development of electronic devices.

more … [PDF]